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Low temperature covalent wafer bonding for X-ray imaging detectors
Low temperature wafer bonding of silicon to various materials is a key technology for all applications requiring a low temperature budget, such as monolithic CMOS integrated pixel detectors [1]. Here, we combine wet chemical etching of the native oxide from wafer surfaces with removal of the hydrogen passivation layer by a low-energy plasma prior to bonding in high vacuum (10 -8 mbar). The method is applicable to the bonding of a multitude of crystalline semiconductors, and for Si results in conductive interfaces similar to the ones of UHV-bonded defect-free surfaces [2].

Authors: N. Razek, J. Neves, H. von Kanel, P. Le Corre, P. F. Ruedi, R. Quaglia, et al.

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